Parts and Functions of a Vacuum Cleaner

Parts and Functions of a Vacuum Cleaner

Last Updated on March 21, 2024 by Nasir Hanif

A vacuum cleaner, also known as a hover, is an electric device that helps clean a room. It helps in removing dirt particles from the floor by suction method. The accumulated dirt particles get stored in a dust bag or a cyclone emptied later or when full.

Carpets are a crucial factor in the elegance of a room and keep the room warm and glowing in color. These carpets are not immune to dust or dirt, especially when we have both children and pets in the house. The dirt particles are too tiny to clean with a broom, exposing the family members to dust-related sickness. This article will discuss its parts and what tasks they do.

Intake Port

The Intake port, located below the vacuum cleaner machine, consists of a series of tiny nozzles. This nozzle ensures that few air particles are going into the machine. Fewer air particles reduce the pressure and increase the suction. An internal motor powers it. A clogged intake port causes the device to lose suction power.

Rotating Brush

A rotating brush is a part of a vacuum cleaner machine made up of rows of bristles. It rubs on the carpet like a regular brush, loosening the dirt particles and pet fur for easy cleaning. The internal motor enhances the rotation making sure it’s fast and powerful. Due to continuous usage, the bristles wear out lowly, and at some point in time, it does need a replacement quickly done at home. 

In-built Fan

The in-built fan sits behind the rotating brushes. The fan has angled blades resembling those of an aircraft propeller. It increases pressure at the front and decreases its force when it rotates, creating suction power. It lets air flow from the intake portal and carries dirt particles to the exhaust nozzle through the fan.


Broom sweeping cause’s dusty air that, at times, windows slide open for aeration. Dusty air can expose the room’s occupants to allergies related to the dust in the air. Filter in the vacuum cleaner ensures no dust gets released into the air. For this reason, it has become prevalent, raising its demand. The high demand has made the vacuum cleaner price in Kenya very competitive among different manufactures.

Exhaust Nozzle

Through the intake port, air flows in the machine, through the fan that creates more pressure behind it. It can only mean that the air has to be released, which takes place at the exhaust port. The air sucked in goes in with dirt particles trapped by the filter and deposited in the dust bag. The exhaust port only releases clean air without dirt particles or pet fur. 


The electric motor found in the vacuum cleaner is responsible for creating the needed suction through the fan. Most engines operate between 1600 to 1800 watts, determined by how fast the turbines spin. The motor is the heart of the vacuum cleaner and is also the most expensive part to replace in a vacuum cleaner. Regular servicing of a vacuum cleaner extends the life of the motor.

Drive Belt

The motor is responsible for the turning of the rotating brush. A drive belt links it via cog. The drive belt is durable rubber that can withstand high friction generated during turning. The manufacturers always advise changing the drive belt regularly to enhance the vacuum cleaner’s performance. Keep some spares of the drive belt since it requires frequent replacement.

Dust Bag or Canister

A dust bag is a porous bag that holds dirt particles collected by the filter. It is made of cloth or paper, ideal for catching dirt particles. Some models use a dust canister that is shaped like a cup. It traps debris in it. It is easy to tell once the canister is complete, unlike the bag where guesswork is applied. The dust bag is replaced with a new one, unlike the canister detached, emptied, and reattached. 

Power Source

The motor needs power to run and turn the inbuilt fan and the rotating brush. Vacuum cleaners are usually connected to electricity with long power cables. The long power cables allow the machine to cover broader and longer surfaces. The major limitation of the electric line is when there is no central connection plug or a close to clean a given place. Also, it makes it immobile.


Basic knowledge of the parts and functions of a vacuum cleaner is essential. It ensures that replacements get done at home without involving a technician. It will also provide early detection of worn-out parts and get them replaced before further damage. It is also advisable to keep the manufacturer’s certificate to sort out malfunctions during the valid warranty.  

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